Saturday, January 21, 2017

Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

Psychol Health Med. 2017 Jan 19;:1-9

Authors: Bloom EL, Minami H, Brown RA, Strong DR, Riebe D, Abrantes AM


Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

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Friday, January 20, 2017

Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men.

Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5):822-8

Authors: Mora-Rodríguez R, Sanchez-Roncero A, Fernández-Elías VE, Guadalupe-Grau A, Ortega JF, Dela F, Helge JW


PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether muscle water content (H2Omuscle) expands with training in deconditioned middle-age men and the effects of this expansion in other muscle metabolites.
METHODS: Eighteen obese (BMI = 33 ± 3 kg⁻¹·m⁻²) untrained (V˙O2peak = 29 ± 7 mL⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) metabolic syndrome men completed a 4-month aerobic cycling training program. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected before and 72 h after the completion of the last training bout. Water content, total protein, glycogen concentration, and citrate synthase activity were measured in biopsy tissue. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cardiometabolic fitness was measured during an incremental cycling test.
RESULTS: Body weight and fat mass were reduced -1.9% and -5.4%, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas leg fat free mass increased with training (1.8%, P = 0.023). Cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., V˙O2peak), exercise maximal fat oxidation (i.e., FOmax), and maximal cycling power (i.e., Wmax) improved with training (11%, 33%, and 10%, respectively; P < 0.05). After 4 months of training, H2Omuscle increased from 783 ± 18 to 799 ± 24 g·kg⁻¹ wet weight (ww) (2%, P = 0.011), whereas muscle protein concentration decreased 11% (145 ± 15 to 129 ± 13 g·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.007). Citrate synthase activity (proxy for mitochondrial density) increased by 31% (17 ± 5 to 22 ± 5 mmol·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.024). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 14% (22 ± 7 to 25 ± 7 g·kg⁻¹ ww) although without reaching statistical significance when expressed as per kilogram of wet weight (P = 0.15).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that aerobic cycling training increases quadriceps muscle water although reduces muscle protein concentration in obese metabolic syndrome men. Reduced protein concentration coexists with increased leg lean mass suggestive of a water dilution effect that however does not impair increased cycling leg power with training.

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Maternal Cardiac Adaptations to a Physical Exercise Program during Pregnancy.

Maternal Cardiac Adaptations to a Physical Exercise Program during Pregnancy.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5):896-906

Authors: Perales M, Santos-Lozano A, Sanchis-Gomar F, Luaces M, Pareja-Galeano H, Garatachea N, Barakat R, Lucia A


INTRODUCTION: Scarce evidence exists regarding the effects of regular pregnancy exercise on maternal cardiovascular health. We aimed to study, using a randomized controlled trial design, the effects of pregnancy exercise on echocardiographic indicators of hemodynamics, cardiac remodeling, left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.
METHODS: Two hundred forty-one healthy pregnant women were assigned to a control (standard care) or intervention (exercise) group (initial n = 121/120). The intervention (weeks 9-11 to 38-39) included three supervised sessions per week (55-60 min, with light-moderate intensity aerobic and strength exercises).
RESULTS: The main findings were as follows: (i) the proportion of women with excessive weight gain at end pregnancy was lower in the exercise group compared with controls (18% vs 40%, P = 0.005), and (ii) there was a tendency toward lower prevalence of depression at end pregnancy in the former (P = 0.029, threshold P value set at 0.013). No significant exercise training effect was essentially found for echocardiographic variables, CVD risk factors, type/duration of labor, or newborn's outcomes (weight, height, head circumference, Apgar scores, and umbilical cord pH).
CONCLUSIONS: Light-moderate intensity supervised exercise is safe for healthy pregnant women and does not impose an additional cardiac overload beyond gestation or affect the main pregnancy outcomes. Such intervention might help decrease, at least partly, the risk of two CVD-associated conditions, excessive weight gain and depression.

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Lower limb mechanics during moderate high-heel jogging and running in different experienced wearers.

Lower limb mechanics during moderate high-heel jogging and running in different experienced wearers.

Hum Mov Sci. 2016 Aug;48:15-27

Authors: Fu F, Zhang Y, Shu Y, Ruan G, Sun J, Baker J, Gu Y


The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics and kinetics between experienced (EW) and inexperienced (IEW) moderate high-heel wearers during jogging and running. Eleven experienced female wearers of moderate high-heel shoes and eleven matched controls participated in jogging and running tests. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture kinematic data and a Kistler force platform was used to collect ground reaction force (GRF). There were no significant differences in jogging and running speed respectively. Compared with IEW, EW adopted larger stride length (SL) with lower stride frequency (SF) at each corresponding speed. During running, EW enlarged SL significantly while IEW increased both SL and SF significantly. Kinematic data showed that IEW had generally larger joint range of motion (ROM) and peak angles during stance phase. Speed effect was not obvious within IEW. EW exhibited a significantly increased maximal vertical GRF (Fz2) and vertical average loading rate (VALR) during running, which was potentially caused by overlong stride. These suggest that both EW and IEW are at high risk of joint injuries when running on moderate high heels. For wearers who have to do some running on moderate high heels, it is crucial to control joint stability and balance SL and SF consciously.

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Thursday, January 19, 2017

Effect of aerobic exercise intensity on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trials.

Effect of aerobic exercise intensity on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trials.

Acta Diabetol. 2016 Oct;53(5):769-81

Authors: Liubaoerjijin Y, Terada T, Fletcher K, Boulé NG


AIMS: To conduct a meta-analysis of head-to-head trials comparing aerobic exercise training of different intensities on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: Databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched up to January 2016. Randomized trials of at least 12 weeks in duration that compared two exercise interventions of different intensities were identified. Two reviewers independently extracted data from eligible trials. Using fixed effect model, weighted mean differences (WMD) between different exercise intensities were calculated for changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and secondary outcomes, such as fasting glucose and fasting insulin.
RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 235 participants were eligible. The exercise interventions lasted from 12 weeks to 6 months. The prescribed exercise intensities varied among studies. Four studies utilized vigorous exercise intensities for short durations by performing interval training. Overall, higher-intensity exercise resulted in a greater reduction in HbA1c compared to lower-intensity exercise (WMD = -0.22 %; 95 % confidence interval [-0.38, -0.06]; or -2.4 mmol/mol [-4.15, -0.66], I (2) = 0). Adherence to exercise and proportion of dropouts did not differ within trials. No adverse events were reported in these small trials with selected inclusion criteria.
CONCLUSIONS: Although our meta-analysis had a limited sample size, increasing exercise intensity safely accentuated reductions in HbA1c in some people with type 2 diabetes. Different approaches have been used to increase exercise intensity (i.e., some used interval training, whereas others used higher-intensity continuous exercise). However, at this time, it is unclear which form, if any, leads to the most favorable results.

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Aerobic Exercise Training in Very Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Aerobic Exercise Training in Very Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 Jan 17;:

Authors: Paneroni M, Simonelli C, Vitacca M, Ambrosino N


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise training in patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases using the following as search terms: COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Exercise, and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of subjects with forced expiratory volume in the first second of less than 35% of the predicted normal value enrolled in in-patient, outpatient, or home- or community-based training programs lasting at least 4 weeks with respect to usual care. We included RCTs with outcome measures including the 6-minute walking test and/or health-related quality of life assessed by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
RESULTS: Of 580 articles screened, 10 were included. The programs' duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks with 1 to 5 sessions per week lasting 15 to 40 minutes each. The intervention group improved in 6-minute walking test [weighted mean difference, 67.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.897-98.927); standardized mean difference, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.04-5.67)], and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [weighted mean difference, -8.041 (95% CI, -15.273 to -0.809); standardized mean difference, -1.23 (95% CI, -2.14 to -0.31)].
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training improves exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with very severe COPD. However, because few studies on severely affected patients are available and the training programs are Highly heterogeneous, larger RCTs are needed.

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Skeletal muscle aging: influence of oxidative stress and physical exercise.

Skeletal muscle aging: influence of oxidative stress and physical exercise.

Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 15;:

Authors: Gomes MJ, Martinez PF, Pagan LU, Damatto RL, Cezar MD, Lima AR, Okoshi K, Okoshi MP


Skeletal muscle abnormalities are responsible for significant disability in the elderly. Sarcopenia is the main alteration occurring during senescence and a key public health issue as it predicts frailty, poor quality of life, and mortality. Several factors such as reduced physical activity, hormonal changes, insulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, appetite loss, and nutritional deficiencies are involved in the physiopathology of muscle changes. Sarcopenia is characterized by structural, biochemical, molecular and functional muscle changes. An imbalance between anabolic and catabolic intracellular signaling pathways and an increase in oxidative stress both play important roles in muscle abnormalities. Currently, despite the discovery of new targets and development of new drugs, nonpharmacological therapies such as physical exercise and nutritional support are considered the basis for prevention and treatment of age-associated muscle abnormalities. There has been an increase in information on signaling pathways beneficially modulated by exercise; nonetheless, studies are needed to establish the best type, intensity, and frequency of exercise to prevent or treat age-induced skeletal muscle alterations.

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Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Acute effect of intermittent and continuous aerobic exercise on release of cardiac troponin T in sedentary men.

Acute effect of intermittent and continuous aerobic exercise on release of cardiac troponin T in sedentary men.

Int J Cardiol. 2017 Jan 09;:

Authors: Ranjbar R, Ahmadi MA, Zar A, Krustrup P


BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that acute exercise can increase serum concentrations of cardiac biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T (cTnT). We investigated the acute effects of intermittent (IE) and continuous (CE) exercise at the same cardiac workload on myocardial necrosis biomarkers in sedentary men.
METHODS: Eleven sedentary healthy men aged 22.3±1.9years completed the study. The subjects were divided into two groups and performed, in random order, IE (intensity alternating between 50% (2min) and 80% (1min) HRreserve) or CE (60% HRreserve). The study was designed as a single-blinded randomised crossover trial performed on two distinct experimental days separated by a 1-week washout period. Each session consisted of 40min of aerobic exercise, either IE or CE, on a treadmill. Blood samples were taken before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 1h after (POST-1) each exercise session.
RESULTS: hs-cTnT significantly increased immediately after exercise in both protocols and remained elevated at POST-1 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between POST and POST-1 values(P>0.05). Neither CE nor IE caused any significant change in CK-MB (P>0.05). The results also showed that HR and RPP increased significantly following both exercise protocols (P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, both CE and IE results in increased serum concentrations of hs-cTnT in sedentary men. However, this increase does not seem to be caused by the irreversible death of cardiomyocytes. CE resulted in a greater hs-cTnT concentration than IE.

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Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Long-term Exercise Adherence After High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Study.

Long-term Exercise Adherence After High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Study.

Physiother Res Int. 2016 Mar;21(1):54-64

Authors: Aamot IL, Karlsen T, Dalen H, Støylen A


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exercise adherence in general is reported to be problematic after cardiac rehabilitation. Additionally, vigorous exercise is associated with impaired exercise adherence. As high-intensity interval training (HIT) is frequently used as a therapy to patients with coronary artery disease in cardiac rehabilitation, the objective was to assess long-term exercise adherence following an HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme.
METHODS: A multicentre randomized study was carried out. Eligible participants were adults who had previously attended a 12-week HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme, as either a home-based or hospital-based HIT (treadmill exercise or group exercise). The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake; secondary outcomes were self-reported and objectively measured physical activity.
RESULTS: Out of 83 eligible participants, 76 were available for assessment (68 men/8 women, mean age 59 (8) years) at a one-year follow-up. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly elevated above baseline values, (treadmill exercise: 35.8 (6.4) vs. 37.4 (7.4) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) , group exercise: 32.7 (6.5) vs. 34.1 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) and home-based exercise: 34.5 (4.9) vs. 36.7 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) at baseline and follow-up, respectively), with no significant differences between groups. The majority of the participants (>90%) met the recommended daily level of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity. The home-based group showed a strong trend towards increased physical activity compared with the hospital-based groups.
DISCUSSION: The results from this study have shown that both home-based and hospital-based HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induce promising long-term exercise adherence, with maintenance of peak oxygen uptake significantly above baseline values at a one-year follow-up. The implication for physiotherapy practice is that HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induces satisfactory long-term exercise adherence.

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Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

Cytokine. 2017 Jan 13;92:55-67

Authors: Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B


This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (P<0.05). These changes correlate with favorable improvements in semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity and pregnancy rate (P<0.05). The results provide information about the effectiveness of moderate aerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention.

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Monday, January 16, 2017

Comparing accelerometer, pedometer and a questionnaire for measuring physical activity in bronchiectasis: a validity and feasibility study?

Comparing accelerometer, pedometer and a questionnaire for measuring physical activity in bronchiectasis: a validity and feasibility study?

Respir Res. 2017 Jan 14;18(1):16

Authors: O'Neill B, McDonough SM, Wilson JJ, Bradbury I, Hayes K, Kirk A, Kent L, Cosgrove D, Bradley JM, Tully MA


BACKGROUND: There are challenges for researchers and clinicians to select the most appropriate physical activity tool, and a balance between precision and feasibility is needed. Currently it is unclear which physical activity tool should be used to assess physical activity in Bronchiectasis. The aim of this research is to compare assessment methods (pedometer and IPAQ) to our criterion method (ActiGraph) for the measurement of physical activity dimensions in Bronchiectasis (BE), and to assess their feasibility and acceptability.
METHODS: Patients in this analysis were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. The ActiGraph and pedometer were worn for seven consecutive days and the IPAQ was completed for the same period. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20 (IBM). Descriptive statistics were used; the percentage agreement between ActiGraph and the other measures were calculated using limits of agreement. Feedback about the feasibility of the activity monitors and the IPAQ was obtained.
RESULTS: There were 55 (22 male) data sets available. For step count there was no significant difference between the ActiGraph and Pedometer, however, total physical activity time (mins) as recorded by the ActiGraph was significantly higher than the pedometer (mean ± SD, 232 (75) vs. 63 (32)). Levels of agreement between the two devices was very good for step count (97% agreement); and variation in the levels of agreement were within accepted limits of ±2 standard deviations from the mean value. IPAQ reported more bouted- moderate - vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [mean, SD; 167(170) vs 6(9) mins/day], and significantly less sedentary time than ActiGraph [mean, SD; 362(115) vs 634(76) vmins/day]. There were low levels of agreement between the two tools (57% sedentary behaviour; 0% MVPA10+), with IPAQ under-reporting sedentary behaviour and over-reporting MVPA10+ compared to ActiGraph. The monitors were found to be feasible and acceptable by participants and researchers; while the IPAQ was accepta ble to use, most patients required assistance to complete it.
CONCLUSIONS: Accurate measurement of physical activity is feasible in BE and will be valuable for future trials of therapeutic interventions. ActiGraph or pedometer could be used to measure simple daily step counts, but ActiGraph was superior as it measured intensity of physical activity and was a more precise measure of time spent walking. The IPAQ does not appear to represent an accurate measure of physical activity in this population.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registration Number NCT01569009 : Physical Activity in Bronchiectasis.

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Sunday, January 15, 2017

Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice.

Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016;11:603-10

Authors: Nesi RT, de Souza PS, Dos Santos GP, Thirupathi A, Menegali BT, Silveira PC, da Silva LA, Valença SS, Pinho RA


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.

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